In order to determine the identity and place of residence of the beneficial owner within the meaning of Article 4, the paying agent shall retain the surname, first name, address and place of residence in accordance with Swiss anti-money laundering legislation. In the case of established contractual relations or in the absence of contractual relations for natural persons who present a passport or an official identity card issued by a Member State and declare that they are established in a State other than the Member State or Switzerland, residence shall be established by a certificate of residence for tax purposes issued by the competent authority of the State. to be a resident. If such a certificate is not presented, the Member State which issued the passport or any other official identity document shall be considered to be a State of residence. Originally, the Schengen Treaties and subsequent rules were officially independent of the EEC and its successor, the European Union (EU). In 1999, they were transposed into European Union legislation by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which provides for Schengen, codified in EU law, while providing for opt-outs for Ireland and the United Kingdom, the latter providing for opt-outs since leaving the EU. EU Member States that do not have an opt-out and have not yet joined the Schengen area are legally obliged to do so if they meet the technical requirements. . . .