Washington Agreement 1921

In addition to multilateral agreements, conference participants concluded several bilateral agreements. Japan and China signed a bilateral agreement, the Shangtung (Shandong), which returned control of the province and its railways to China. Japan had taken control of the territory by the Germans during World War I and had retained control of it in the following years. The combination of the Shangtung Treaty and the Nine-Power Treaty should assure China that its territory will no longer be threatened by Japanese expansion. In addition, Japan has agreed to withdraw its troops from Siberia and the United States and Japan have formally accepted equal access to cable and radio equipment on Japan-controlled Yap Island. The Washington Navy Treaty, also known as a five-power contract, was a treaty signed in 1922 among the great nations that had won World War I, which declared itself ready to prevent an arms race by limiting shipbuilding. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference from November 1921 to February 1922 in Washington, D.C. and signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy and Japan. It limited the construction of battleships, battlecruund cruisers and aircraft carriers by the signatories. The treaty did not limit the number of other categories of warships, including cruisers, destroyers and submarines, but these vessels were limited to 10,000 tonnes of eviction.

Washington Conference, also known as the Washington Naval Conference, as the International Conference on Naval Limitation (1921-22), an international conference convened by the United States to limit the navy`s arms race and develop security agreements in the Pacific region. The conference, held in Washington, D.C, resulted in the development and signing of several important and lesser agreements. In 1921, U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes invited nine nations to Washington to .C to talk about the reduction of the navy and the situation in the Far East. The United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy were invited to participate in discussions on reducing naval capacity, while Belgium, China, Portugal and the Netherlands were invited to participate in discussions on the situation in the Far East. The Naval Conference in Washington revealed three important treaties: the Treaty of Five Powers, the Treaty of Four Powers and the Nine-Power Treaty. The latest multilateral agreement reached at the Washington Naval Conference, the Nine Power Treaty, marked the internationalization of U.S. open-door policy in China.

The treaty promised that each of the signatories – the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China – would respect China`s territorial integrity. The treaty recognized Japanese supremacy in Manchuria, but also reaffirmed the importance of equal opportunities for all nations doing business in the country. For its part, China has agreed not to discriminate against a country that wants to do business there. Like the Treaty of the Four Powers, the Treaty on China called for continued consultations between signatories in the event of infringement. As a result, it did not have a method of application to ensure that all powers complied with its conditions. In the Treaty on the Four Powers, the United States, France, the United Kingdom and Japan agreed to consult each other before taking action in the event of a future crisis in East Asia. This treaty replaced the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902, which had raised concerns for the United States.