The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto (An example of how the structure of the agreement is neglected is illustrated by a look at the Brazilian nation. It issued a statement on its intention to begin reducing CO2 emissions by 2% from 2040. This “Do nothing” declaration is all that is necessary for Brazil to be a signatory to the Paris climate agreement. Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990.  One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. When IPCC scientists confirmed the threat posed by man-made climate change caused by the burning of fossil fuels in industry and transport, governments began negotiations on the establishment of an international agreement on climate change in the early 1990s. This led to the adoption in 1992 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) to ensure that industrialized countries would remain in place by the year 2000 to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at 1990 levels.
Developing countries have been exempted from emissions targets, while recognizing that most of the world`s historic and current greenhouse gas emissions originate in developed countries and that developing countries must achieve sustainable economic growth and eliminate poverty. Almost all scientists who study the atmosphere now believe that global warming is primarily the result of human action. Logically, what people have caused by their behaviour should be able to be corrected by people who change their behaviour. It is frustrating for many that there are still no cohesive measures to deal with the man-made global climate crisis. The UNFCCC is an explanation of the need for action, but it does not agree on specific emission reductions. The Kyoto Protocol complements the UNFCCC, which sets more stringent targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.