A head of state can take power by force or by revolution. This is not the same as the use of force to maintain power, as practiced by authoritarian or totalitarian leaders. Dictators often use democratic titles, although some declare themselves monarchs. The examples of these are Emperor Napoleon I of France and Zog King of Albania. In Spain, General Francisco Franco took the official title of Jefe del Estado, or head of state, and established himself as a regent for a vacant monarchy. Uganda`s Idi Amin was one of many to have proclaimed itself president of life. Although the president and various monarchical titles are most often used for heads of state, the leader of certain nationalist regimes formally or de facto adopts a unique style that simply means “leader” in the national language, for example. B the only leader of the German National Socialist Party and head of state and government, Adolf Hitler, as leader between 1934 and 1945. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a person other than the head of government. This goes against a presidential system in a democracy where the head of state is often also head of government, and above all: the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislative branch. The parliamentary system may be confronted with a presidential system that operates within the framework of a stricter separation of powers, since the executive is not part of the parliamentary or legislative body and is not appointed by it. In such a system, congressional governments do not vote or dismiss, and governments cannot request early dissolution, as could be the case for parliaments.
Since legislative power in a parliamentary system has more power over the executive, a remarkable number of studies by political scientists have shown that parliamentary systems are less corrupt than presidential government systems. In parliamentary systems, the head of state can only be the nominal executive who heads the executive of the state and has limited executive power. But in reality, after a process of constitutional development, powers are generally exercised only on the instruction of a cabinet headed by a responsible head of government before the legislature.